Ayurvedic Definitions
Aadaan kala: the first half of the yearAccording to Ayurveda, a year is divided into two periods or kalas : adaan and visarga. Aaadan kala is also called utarayana (northern solstice). During this period the sun and wind become strong and take away the cooling properties of the earth. It starts from mid January to mid July. Ritus (seasons) included are Sisra (cold and dewy season); Vasanta (spring season) and Grisma ritu (summer season). 
Aadharniya vega; non suppression of natural urgesIt means the natural urges which should not be suppressed by force as a habit.  
Aayschotana; Type of Eye salvesIt is a type of eye treatment in which drops of herbal liquids are put into the eyes. This therapy prevents excess lacrimation, burning sensation and redness of eyes.
Abhakta aushadha; empty stomach medication intakeAyurveda describes various methods of intake of medicine depending upon the dosha imbalanced. Empty stomach medicine intake is one of the methods The medicine is given early in the morning empty stomach. It is mostly recommended to patients who are strong enough to take medicine empty stomach and in aggravation of kapha.
Abhyanga: MassageAyurveda has recommended abhyanga as a part of Dincharya (daily regimen). Abhyanga is anointing the head and body with medicated oil by gently massaging. It is more beneficial if done before taking bath. It gives strength, nourishment to body and makes the skin look healthy and good.
Adhobhakta; Intake of medicine after mealsThe medicine is given immediately after the meals. It is recommended in imbalance of vyaan vayu.
Agadtantra; ToxicologyIt is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda dealing with identification of poison, types of poison and their treatment.
Agni karma; Thermal cauteryAccording to Ashtang Hridyam, Agnikarma  was done by using alkalis. The diseases treated by this method do not recur. Top
Agni: the digestive activityLiterally agni means fire. In Ayurveda, agni refers to fire like digestive activity in the alimentary canal. It is responsible for digestion of food. The doshas (vata, pitta and kapha) affect the agni. Depending on their condition of doshas, the agni can be classified into three types: Vismagni, Tikshaagni and Samagni.
Anjana: Eye salvesIt is the medicated therapy for eyes having therapeutic and curative indications. Charaka has recommended it as a part of Dincharya (daily regimen).
Asadhya; incurableWhile describing the sadhya-asadhyta of the roga (prognosis of the diseases) the rogas are said to be of two types: sadhya and asadhya. Asadhya means the roga, which cannot be fully cured.  
Ashtanga Ayurveda: the eight branches of lifeThe eight branches of Ayurveda are:Kaya (Internal medicine) Shalakya (Eye, ear, nose and throat related). Shalakya also means probe. It deals with conditions involving the use of probes.Shalya (Surgery)Agad Tantra (Toxicology) Bhuta Vidya (Psychology)Kaumarbhritya (Pediatrics)Rasyana (Rejuvenation therapy)Bajikaran (Aphrodiasics)
Aushadha: MedicineAushadha means medicine to be given for cure of the disease. Charaka states aushada as one of the constituent of Chiktisa Chatushpada(Four essential constituents of treatment). Based on action, aushadha mainly of two types: Shodhana (Purifactory therapy) and Shamana (Palliative therapy). Depending upon its origin aushadha is of two types: Sthavar (plant origin) and Jangam (animal origin).
Avagaha sveda; Sitz bathThe herbs to be used are boiled in water. The patient is asked to dip the affected part in it. It’s most commonly used in arsh (piles).Top 
Ayurveda: Science of lifeThe word Ayurveda is combination of two words: Ayus(life) and Veda(science). According to Charaka and Sushruta, Ayurveda is considered as upveda of Atharveda. Charaka states that Ayurveda deals with four types of life i.e. hita (useful), ahita (harmful), sukha (happy) and dukha (unhappy). Ayurveda is eternal. It describes the good and ill health along with their etiology, symptomatology and therapeutics.
Ayus: life The term Ayus stands for the combination of sharir (body), endriya (sense organs), satva (mind) and atma (soul). Dhari (one which forms), jivita (alive), nitayga (serving permanent substratum of body) and anubandha (which transmigrates from one body to another) are the synonyms of ayus. It has also been described as continuity of consciousness.
Barambar aushadha; Intake of medicine anytimeThe medicine can be given anytime regardless of meal taken or not. It is recommended in hikka (hiccups), kasa (cough) and poisoning.
Bhrajaka pitta; type of pittaThis type of pitta is situated in skin. Its function is the regulation of complexion.
Bodhaka kapha; type of kaphaTongue is the main site of bodhaka kapha. Its function is perception of taste.
Brhmna; Nourishing therapyCharaka describes it as one of pshadvidha krivas (six treatment therapies). It is recommended for the individuals who have become lean and emaciated due to some disease or deficiency.  
Dantalekhana; Dental lancetIn Ancient times, this instrument was meant for scrapping tartar from the teeth. It was shaped like knot on one side.
Dhatus; tissuesAyurveda describes seven dhatus in the body i.e. tissue systems. Each dhatu is developed out of previous one. The preceding dhatu is nourished by previous one. They are: rasa (plasma), rakta (blood), mamsa (muscle), asthi (bone), majja (marrow), sukra (semen).
Dhyana; MeditationOne of the practices done for mental stability. When the manas (mind) attain the state of stability it is called dhyana. While in dhyana one should try to concentrate on one particular thing only.
Doshas; Basic constituent of the bodyAyurveda states doshas to be basic constituents of the body. Doshas balanced/imbalanced state leads to healthy/ unhealthy condition of body. There are three doshas- vata, pitta and kapha
Eranda Taila; Castor oilIt is included in taila varga. It is sara(laxative), ushna virya(hot in potency), hard to digest and has bad smell.
Ghrita; ghee or butter fatIt is one of the milk products. It is good for emaciated people, children, aged and weak. It improves the intelligence, memory and longevity of life. It is best among the oleation therapies.
Gridharsi; SciaticaIt is vattaj roga. The aggravated vata and kapha invades the hip region leading to stiffness, pain and pricking sensation in the waist, back , thigh, knee and calf region.
Gur; JaggeryIt is one of product of ikshu varga. It weakens digestive activity. It is good for easy elimination of faeces and urine. Top
Ikshu svarasa; sugarcane juiceThe juice extracted from ikshu(sugarcane) is hard to digest, sweet in taste and increases kapha. Poundrika is the best variety of sugarcane for juice.
Kalka; PasteThe herbs to be used for medicinal purposes are taken and are kneaded along with juice or herbal waters to convert into lumps. This form is called kalka.
Katu rasa;One of the rasas described in Ayurveda. Tejas and vayu mahabhutas (primary element) are the main constituents of this rasa. This rasa excites the tip of tongue causing irritation and mitigates the kapha.
Kaumarbhritya; PaediatricsIt is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda dealing with development of infants, children diseases, ailments of lactating mothers and conditions related to breastfeeding.
Ksharas;alkali preparationsTheir properties depend mainly on the herbs from which they are made. In general they are sharp, hot, light, unctuous, softening and stimulative. For e.g. tavak-kshara.
Kshya rasa; astringent tasteOne of the rasas described in Ayurveda. Prithvi and vayu mahabhutas (primary element) are the main constituents of this rasa. It mitigates pitta and kapha. It also diminshes the capacity of taste perception.
Kvatha; Hot decoctionThe herb is taken either in dried or wet form and it is boiled in water. The drained water is called kvatha. The kvatha is said to be prepared when half amount of water is left after boiling.
Langhana; depletion therapyAccording to Ashtang Sangraha it is one of dvividha upkarma(two kinds of therapy). It can be called as slimming therapy and indicated for those who are obese due to overeating. This therapy makes body thin and light. Top
Lavana rasa; salty tasteOne of the rasas described in Ayurveda. Jala and tejas mahabhutas (primary element) are the main constituents of this rasa. It increases salivation and digestive activity.
Madhu; HoneyMadhu is sweet in taste and non-ctuous. It increases vata, heals wounds, good for cough, dyspnoea and also for vision.
Madhur rasa; sweet tasteOne of the rasas described in Ayurveda. Prithvi and jala mahabhutas (primary element) are the main constituents of this rasa. It gives pleasant feeling in the mouth but if used in excess can increase the kapha.
Manda; Rice preparationThe drained water after boiling rice resembling thin fluid is called manda. It helps in easy digestion of food and eases bowel movements. It also relieves thirst and exahustion.
Mandagni; slow digestive activityThe aggravated kapha leads to Mandagni. The digestion is slow and dull. During digestion there is heaviness in abdomen.
Mastu; watery part of the curdIt is described in kshiravarga( group of milk and milk products). It is easily digestible and increases appetite. It is sour in taste. It helps in easy movement of bowels and relieves constipation.
Mudga supa; soup of green gramBoiling mudga in water makes this prepartion. It is good for better health and it is generally given after the purifactory therapies.
Navanita; ButterIt is described in kshiravarga(group of milk and milk products). It is cold in potency. It improves complexion increase the strength and digestion. Top
Nidaan; CausesNidaan refers to the etiology or cause of the disease. Its knowledge helps in treatment of disease. Its synomyns are hetu,aaytan.
Odana; boiled riceBoiling the rice and then draining the water. The solid with or without fluid portion is called odana. It is very easily digestible.
Odana; boiled rice The solid portion left after draining water from boiled rice is called odana. It is easily digestible.
Pakshavadha;HemiplegiaCharaka describes it is a vattaj disease. The aggravated vata invades and paralyses one side of the body. The invaded part stops working and leads to pakshvadha.
Panaka; SyrupPanaka is syrup and included in  kritanna varga(group of prepared food). In general it relieves exhaustion, thirst and fatigue. But its properties mainly depend from which they are made.
Prakopa (Abnormal increase)Charaka describes Prakopa as second stage in the pathogenesis of any disease. The unbalanced dosha
Rasayana; Rejuvenative therapyRasayana is ancient Indian therapy used for rejuvenation. Rasayana builds up dhatus(tissues), improves the quality and quantity of life and increases vyadhishamtava( immunity) in the body.
Samagni: normal digestive activityIt is normal digestion in which all the doshas are balanced. The food is digested properly and no above symptoms are seen. Top
Sambhakta aushadha; Medicine taken mixed with foodThe medicine is mixed with the food and taken. It is usually given in this form to children/infants and to the individuals who hate taking medicines.
Samudga aushadha; intake of medicine before and after the mealsAyurveda describes various methods of intake of medicine depending upon the dosha imbalanced. Samudga aushadha means taking the medicine at the beginning and the end of the meal. It is mostly given in the form of avaleha(paste ) or churna(powder).
Sandasa; forcepsSushruta describes it a type of yantra. They are of two types with or without catch at its tip. Their main function is  extraction of foreign bodies.
Santarpana; nourishing therapyIt is the therapy that accelerates the normal functions of the doshas and dhatus in the body. It gives strength to weak and emaciated.
Sarpi; ghee or butter fatSame as ghrit.
Sarshapa taila;mustard oilThis oils extracted from the seeds of mustard. It is used for cooking and massage. It is easily digestible and hot in potency.
Sarvanga roga; ParaplegiaThis disease is caused due to vata imbalance. The aggravated vata affects the whole body and paralyses it. Sarvanga means whole body parts.
Sastras; sharp surgical instrumentsSastra are sharp instruments made of steel like iron. In ancient times these were made in traditional way by skilled metalsmiths.These were named according to their shapes and are 26 in number.  Top
Satmikarman karma; AccustomisationUnhealthy things (food, drinks, activities), which have been accustomed by long use, should be discontinued gradually not at once. Similarily getting accustomed to healthy things gradually is called satmikarman karma.It is one of good way to quit smoking/alcohol.
Satvajya chikitsa; PsychotherapyIt is one of the methods of treatment as described in Ayurveda. It is mainly used for manas-roga (psychological diseases) by controlling mind. For example by controlling anger, fear, greed, hatred and by meditation.
Satvavjayachiktisa; PsychotherapyThis therapy is advised in manasroga (psycholigcal ailments). The word satvavajya means controlling the mind (satva here refers to mind). This therapy includes overcoming the feelings like anger, fear, greed, hatred.
Seet; Cold infusionThe herb itself or its powder is sprinkled with cold water or dipped in cold water overnight. The drained water is called seet.
Sgrasa aushadha; Intake of medicine with each biteSgrasa means along with each grasa(bite of food). This method is usually good for upper respiratory tract infections. It is given in avaleha(paste) or churna(powder) form.
Shalya tantra; SurgeryIt is one of the eight branches of the Ayurveda. It deals with the extraction of shalya (foreign body) thru ancient Ayurvedic procedures.
Sharir upstambha; pillars of lifeAahar (food), nidra (sleep) and brahmcharya are three pillars of life. They are equally important for therapeutic and curative purposes.
Sita; Crystalline sugarIt is included in ikshuvarga (group of sugarcane products). It is good for emaciated and wounded. It is better than jaggery. It decreases aggravated vata and relieves excessive thirst. Top
Sneha dravya; the unctuous substancesAyurveda describes sneha dravya as unctuous substances. The four best and commonly used snehas are ghrit (ghee), taila (oil), vasa (fat) and majja (marrow).
Snehana; Oleation therapyThis therapy is to be administered before Panchkarma. It is administeration of medicated sneha (unctuous substances) to relieve the aggravated vata.
Suchi; needlesSushruta Samhita describes suchi as a type of sastra used for suturing. Three types of suchi have been described – round, strong and stout. Depending on the part to be used the length of the suchi is decided.
Sura; BeerIt is included in madya varga(group of wines). It is hard to digest. It mitigates vata and increases kapha and fat in the body.
Sutrasthana; One of the section of Ayurveda textsIt is the first section dealing mainly with the fundamental principles of Ayurveda. It mainly consists of principles to be followed for a better and healthy life.
Svarasa; JuiceThe herbs to be used for medicinal purposes are taken and their juice is expressed either manually or by machines. The expressed juice is called svarasa.
Svedana; Sudation therapyThis therapy is given after snehana and before Panchkarma. It is useful for disease caused due to vitiation vata and kapha either alone or together.
Swasthvritta; healthy code of conduct The code of conduct or regimen to be followed for a happy and healthy life is called swasthvritta. It is foundation for arogyaawastha(healthy condition). Dincharya(daily regimen) and rtucharya(seasonal regimen) are to be followed for personal hygiene whereas sadavritta(right code of conduct) is to be followed for mental hygiene.
Taila; oilTaila is included in snehavarga(the group of unctuous substances. Their properties depend on the seeds from which they are derived.
Takra; buttermilk without fatIt is included in the kshiravarga (group of milk and milk products). It mitigates kapha and vata. It is astringent and sour. It is easily digestible and improves the appetite. Top
Tikshanagni; irregular fast digestive activityThe aggravated pitta leads to Tikshnagni. There is burning sensation during the digestion of food. 
Tikta rasa; Bitter tasteOne of the rasas described in Ayurveda. Akash and vayu mahabhutas (primary element) are the main constituents of this rasa. Tikta rasa mitigates pitta and kapha. Example:
Til taila; sesamum oilThis oil is very commonly used in different oils as base oil. It has property of deep penetration into tissues and is used for massage.
Vaman karma; medicated enema therapyIt is one of the Panchkarma. Elimination of dosas through the mouth by using medicated herbs is called vamana. It is mainly used for shodhana (elimination) of kapha.
Vilepi;semi solid preparation of riceIt is included in the Kritanna varga i.e. the group of prepared foods. The boiled rice with more solid portion and less of fluid is called vilepi. This is easily digestible by even weak and emaciated. It is also effective for anorexia.
Vipaka;After digestion change of tasteThe food we take is acted upon by jatharagni(digestive activity) and the taste of the food changes. The original rasa(taste) changes to vipaka(new or same taste.For example anything having sweet or salt taste will have sweet vipaka.
Virechana karma: medicated purgationElimination of dosas through the lower gastrointestinal tract by using medicated herbs is called virechana. It is mainly used for shodhana (elimination) of pitta. It is done about 14days after the vamana karma.
Virudhahar; Incompatible foodIt means anything (food, drink, activities) when combined with other thing (food, drink, activities) causes imbalance of doshas and leads to disease.
Visarga kala; second half of the yearIt starts from mid-July to mid –January. The rtus included are varsha rtu (mid july – mid September), Sharad rtu (mid September- mid November) and Hemant rtu (mid November- mid January). During this half of the year the sun and wind are not too strong. The rays of moon are strong giving coolness in this half. Top
Vismagni: irregular digestive activityThe aggravated vata leads to Vismagni. The digestion becomes irregular and can lead to indigestion. 
Vya; AgeThe time of life spent is vya. Charaka has divided vya in three sections: Bal (childhood)- birth till 30 yrsMadhya (middle age)-30- 60 yrsJirna (old age) 60- 100 yrs. 
Yantra; Blunt surgical instrumentsAccording to Ayurvedic texts, Yantras are blunt instruments used to extract different foreign bodies causing pain, to inspect, for agni karma (cautery) and for basti (medicated enema).
YogaThe word Yoga is derived from Sanskrit word “yug” which means to unite, to combine or to integrate. It is a state of union of parmaatma (Devine or supreme soul) with the Jeevatma (individual soul or consciousness).
 

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